Sabtu, 24 Oktober 2009

Belajar Pola Grammar Tenses

Sabtu, 24 Oktober 2009
GRAMMAR
TENSES

1. Simple Past Tense
Simple Past Tense digunakan untuk mengungkapkan suatu kejadian dimasa lampau.
Pola Kalimat 1
(+) S + V2 + O
My mother drank a cup of tea lastnight
(-) S + did + not + V1 + O
My mother didn't drink a cup of tea lastnight
(?) Did + S + V1 + O + ?
Did my mother drink a cup of tea lastnight?

Pola Kalimat 2
(+) S + was/were + non verb
She was a student before
(-) S + was/were + not + non verb
She wasn't a student before
(?) Was/were + S + non verb + ?
Was she a student before?

2. Past Continous Tense (Past Progressive Tense)

Past Continous Tense digunakan untuk mengungkapkan kejadian yang sedang berlangsung di masa lampau, karena itu untuk memperjelas maksud kalimat maka di buat kalimat kedua. Jadi ada dua kalimat untuk tense yang satu ini, yaitu induk kalimat (main clause) dan sub clause (anak kalimat) yang dihubungkan dengan kata when atau while.
Past Continous Tense
(+) S + was/were + V.ing + O
I was watching television when my friends came to my home
(-) S + was/were + not + V.ing + O
I wasn't watching television when my friends came to my home
(?) Was/were + S + V.ing + O + ?
Was i watching television when my friends came to my home?

3. Past Perfect Tense

Past Perfect Tense digunakan untuk mengungkapkan kejadian di masa lampau dengan tempo waktu yang sudah jelas dan jangka waktu yang lebih lama dari past continous tense.
Past Perfect Tense
(+) S + had + V3 + O
She had lived here for 3 years
(-) S + had + not + V3 + O
She had not lived here for 3 years
(?) Had + S + V3 + O + ?
Had she lived here for 3 years?

4. Past Perfect Continous Tense

Past Perfect Continous Tense digunakan untuk mengungkapkan kejadian di masa lampau dengan tempo waktu yang sudah jelas dan jangka waktu yang lebih lama dari past continous tense.
Past Perfect Continous Tense
(+) S + had + been + V.ing + O
He had been living here for 5 years
(-) S + had + not + been + V.ing + O
He had not been living here for 5 years
(?) Had + S + been + V.ing + O + ?
Had he been living here for 5 years?


5. Past Future Tense

Past Future Tense digunakan untuk menyatakan kejadian yang akan berlangsung di masa lampau.
Pola Kalimat 1
(+) S + would + V1 + O
I would go to your home lastnight but i couldn't because of the rain
(-) S + would + not + V1 + O
I wouldn't go to your home lastnight because of the rain
(?) Would + S + V1 + O + ?
Would i go to your home lastnight when it was rain?

Pola Kalimat 2
(+) S + would + be + non verb
She would be a clerk
(-) S + would + not + be + non verb
She wouldn't be a clerk
(?) Would + S + be + non verb + ?
Would she be a clerk?

6. Past Future Continous Tense

Past Future Continous Tense digunakan untuk menyatakan kejadian yang akan sedang berlangsung di masa lampau.
Past Future Continous Tense
(+) S + would + be + V.ing + O
We would be going to school when the sun was rising
(-) S + would + not + be + V.ing + O
We would not be going to school when the sun was rising
(?) Would + S + be + V.ing + O + ?
Would we be going to school when the sun was rising?


7. Past Perfect Future Tense

Past Perfect Future Tense digunakan pada conditional sentences phrase 3.
Past Perfect Future Tense Example
(+) S + would + have + V3
She would have cried when she had been hurted
(-) S + would + not + have + V3
She would not have cried when she had been hurted
(?) Would + S + have + V3 + ?
Would she have cried when she had been hurted?

8. Simple Present Tense

Simple Present Tense digunakan untuk mengungkapkan :
- Kegiatan sehari-hari (daily activities)
- Kebiasaan (habits)
- Kebenaran umum (general truth)
Pola Kalimat 1
(+) S + V1 + O
I read a magazine
(-) S + do/does + V1 + O
I don't read a magazine
(?) Do/does + S + V1 + O + ?
Do I read a magazine?

Pola Kalimat 2
(+) S + to be + non verb
I am a student
(-) S + to be + not + non verb
I am not a student
(?) To be + S + non verb + ?
Am i a student?



9. Present Continous Tense (Present Progressive Tense)

Present Continous Tense digunakan untuk mengungkapkan suatu kejadian yang sedang berlangsung pada saat dibicarakan.
Present Continous Tense
(+) S + to be + V.ing + O
My brother is studying
(-) S + to be + not + V.ing + O
My brother isn't studying
(?) To be + S + V.ing + ?
Is he studying?

10. Present Perfect Tense

Present Perfect Tense digunakan untuk mengungkapkan suatu kejadian yang sedang berlangsung dengan tempo waktu yang lebih lama dan sudah jelas jangka waktunya.
Present Perfect Tense
(+) S + have + V3 + O
I have stayed here for 2 weeks
(-) S + have + not + V3 + O
I have not stayed here for 2 weeks
(?) Have + S + V3 + O + ?
Have i stayed here for 2 weeks?

11. Present Perfect Continous Tense

Present Perfect Continous Tense digunakan untuk mengungkapkan suatu kejadian yang sedang berlangsung dengan tempo waktu yang lebih lama dan sudah jelas jangka waktunya.
Present Perfect Continous Tense
(+) S + have + been + V.ing + O
I have been living here since 5 years
(-) S + have + not + been + V.ing + O
I haven't been living here since 5 years
(?) Have + S + been + V.ing + O + ?
Have i been living here since 5 years

12. Simple Future Tense

Simple Future Tense digunakan untuk mengungkapkan suatu kejadian yang akan terjadi di masa depan, lebih tepatnya future tense digunakan untuk mengungkapkan suatu rencana (planning).
Pola Kalimat 1
(+) S + will + V1 + O
My mother will make a cake tonight
(-) S + will + not + V1 + O
My mother won't make a cake tonight
(?) Will + S + V1 + O + ?
Will my mother make a cake tonight?

Pola Kalimat 2
(+) S + will + be + non verb
My sister will be a doctor
(-) S + will + not + be + non verb
My sister won't be a doctor
(?) Will + S + be + non verb + ?
Will my sister be a doctor?

13. Future Continous Tense (Future Progressive Tense)

Future Continous Tense digunakan untuk mengungkapkan suatu kejadian yang akan berlangsung di masa yang akan datang.
Future Continous Tense
(+) S + will + be + V.ing + O
I will be going to Surabaya for 2 weeks
(-) S + will + not + be + V.ing + O
I won't be going to Surabaya for 2 weeks
(?) Will + S + be + V.ing + O + ?
Will i am going to Surabaya for 2 weeks?



14. Adverb Of Frequency

Adverb Of Frequency digunakan untuk mengungkapkan suatu rutinitas / suatu kegiatan yang rutin dilakukan.
Adverb Of Frequency : always, usually, often, sometimes, seldom, ever, never, once, twice, three times, four times, etc.
Adverb Of Frequency
(+) S + Adv. of freq + V1 + O
My brother always goes to school by bike
(-) S + do/does + not + Adv. of freq + V1 + O
My brother doesn't always go to school by bike
(?) Do/does + S + Adv. of freq + V1 + O + ?
Does my brother always go to school by bike?


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